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Every year in spring millions of people around the world suffer from asthma. It is a time when flowers blossom and grass is cut. Asthma is an illness that narrows the breathing passages.
As a result, not enough air can enter and leave your lungs. According to the World Health Organisation over 230 million people around the world are suffering from asthma. Among children it is the most chronic disease. While asthma occurs in almost all countries, asthma-related deaths happen mainly in the poorer countries of the Third World. In America over 25 million people and 7 million children develop asthma every year. The disease is more common among African Americans. The death rate among this group is five times as high as among whites.
The WHO warns that asthma rates are increasing by 50 % every ten years. Asthma also causes a loss of business and does damage to the economy because many people stay at home when they are ill. Asthma occurs when tissue in your throat begins to expand or swell. Muscles in these passages become tighter and cells begin to produce some sticky substance, which makes airways even smaller.
This makes it difficult for air to flow into your lungs. When this happens we call it an asthma attack. Victims fight to get enough air into their lungs, sometimes they have to cough and they breathe heavily. Sometimes asthma victims have a pain in the chest. Such an illness can deeply influence a person’s health and may even lead to death. Bacteria are small living things that can be found almost everywhere.
They reproduce by splitting themselves in the middle. The two new cells can then split into four cells and so on. In a short time a single bacteria can reproduce billions of times. According to the World Health Organization over a billion adults around the world suffer from high blood pressure. It is now taking stepsto fight against what is called a silent killer. High blood pressure can lead to strokes and a heart attack.
Almost 10 million people die of these two diseases every year. They are the number one causes of death globally. High blood pressure also leads to kidney failure, blindness and other illnesses. It often goes hand in hand with diabetes and obesity, which increases heath risks even further. As the WHO reports, people in developing countries in Africa suffer more from high blood pressure than people in developed countries. The reason is that health care in the developed world is much better organized and people go to the doctor soon enough. High blood pressure should never be ignored and always taken seriously. It is a warning sign from your body that something is not OK.
Although people may live with high blood pressure for years without even knowing it, it is important to check your blood pressure regularlyand take the necessary steps. The WHO says that you can reduce your blood pressure by changing your living habits. Eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, avoiding alcohol and nicotine are some things that you can do without consulting a doctor. Malnutrition is a disorder of your food intake. It occurs when a person eats too little or too much, or has an unbalanced diet. In most cases malnutrition means undernourishment, a lack of food and not enough calories.
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It is widespread in developing countries. On the other side obesity occurs in developed countries where people eat too much. According to the World Health Organization malnutrition is one of the greatest dangers of global health. Currently, about one billion people around the world do not have enough to eat.
When does malnutrition occur Malnutrition happens when people lack nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Not enough proteins can have negative effects on a person’s growth and lead to physical problems. Vitamins are important for good health and the functioning of your body. A lack of them can cause major problems. Vitamin A deficiency may lead to eye problems and blindness. A lack of calcium leads to a bad growth of bones and teeth. Iron deficiency can affect the brain and lead to a lower IQ rate. It can make children less active and not able to concentrate.
Malnutrition increases the risk of diseases and weakens the immune system. It affects the transmission of viruses, including HIV. It is especially widespread among women, children and older people. Children can be at risk even before birth because they depend on the mother’s nutrition. One in ten people around the world is malnourished. Eating disorders account for 60 million deaths a year, including six million children. It is the main cause of child mortality. All living things need food to survive. It gives us energy for everything that we do. It also gives the body what it needs to repair muscles, organs and skin. Food helps us fight off dangerous diseases.
It is important to eat a wide range of food in order to stay healthy. Nutrition is the science that deals with food and how the body uses it. How the body uses food Food has nutrients in it— substances that give our body many important things that we need.
They provide us with energy and also help control the way our body grows. Before nutrients can go to work food must be broken down so that they can pass into our body. This is called digestion. It starts when wechew the food that we eat. When we swallow it it travels on to the stomach where it is mixed together with water and other fluids. Then the food is passed on to the intestine. Nutrients escape through the walls of the intestine into our blood. From there they are carried to all parts of the body.
Most food leaves waste that the body cannot use. Some of it goes to the kidneys and turns into urine. The liver also filters out waste. What is left over passes through the large intestine and leaves our body.
Nutrients There are six main groups of nutrients: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. The energy that food gives us ismeasured in kilocalories, or one thousand calories. A calorie is the energy that is needed to raise the temperature of water by one degree Celsius.
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Water Although water does not give us energy it is the most important nutrient. We maya be able to live on without the others for weeks, but we cannot go on without water for more than a few days.
Water has many functions in our body. It helps break down food. It also cools the body down when it becomes too hot. The body carries away waste products in a watery solution.
Our body needs about 2 –3 litres of water a day. We get it from the water and liquids we drink but also from fruits, vegetables and other food. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for our body. Sugars and starches have carbohydrates in them.
Sugar is a simple carbohydrate.
It gives us energy very quickly. This form of energy can be found in dairy products, honey, syrup, jams andjelly. Starches must be broken down into sugars before our body can use them.
They are found in beans, bread , potatoes, cereals, corn, pasta,peas and potatoes. They provide our body with a constant supply of energy. Fats Our body needs fat in small amounts. Fats are made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. They store vitamins and produce fatty acids. We need these acids to produce cell membranes. Fats can come from animals or plants.
They are in meat and dairy products, like butter and cheese. Other types of fats are in vegetable oils, nuts or seeds. Too many saturated fats produce a high level of cholesterol, a waxy material made by the body.
It starts building up in the walls of blood vessels and may block blood as it flows through our body. Proteins Proteins are among the most important building blocks of our body.
Muscles, skin and hair , for example, are made up of proteins. Proteins are complex molecules made up of amino acids. The body can produce some of them itself, but we must get the others from food.
Proteins are in cheese, eggs, fish, meat, milk, as well as in nuts, peas and beans. Minerals Minerals are needed for growth. They are inorganic, not made up of living things. Our body needs different amounts of various minerals. Calcium and magnesium, for example, are important for bones and teeth.
We also need small amounts of iron. It is a component of haemoglobin, which carries oxygen to red blood cells. Fluorine or zinc are other minerals we need in very small amounts.
They are calledtrace elements. Vitamins Our body needs a variety of vitamins to stay healthy. Each of them does a different job. Vitamin A, for example, helps skin and hair grow. Vitamin C is needed to fight off infections. Vitamin D helps the growth of bones and teeth
The right diet The key to staying healthy is eating the right food. Nutritionists suggest eating according to the food guide pyramid. It has five sections. You should eat a lot of the bottom parts, but only a little of the upper parts.
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Even though she knows she is risking the new family she spent years to build, she travels to Colombia to capture La Diabla. This brings us to the point where last season ended, with Catalina leading a major operation to apprehend her old foe.